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Monday 14 August 2023
In this article, we address a critical gap within the existing literature by offering a dedicated treatment of the 3GPP Release-18 study on AI/ML for the NR air interface. This comprehensive contribution enriches the existing works which often confine their scopes to certain areas of the 3GPP study. Furthermore, we also divulge the myriad factors that underpin the process of standardization. Given that the integration of AI/ML within the air interface is a nascent and largely uncharted avenue in the realm of standards development, 3GPP has identified many new challenges and gained novel perspectives during this study. Conveying these learnings from the front lines of 3GPP helps demystify the decisions and is particularly valuable for researchers not directly involved in the 3GPP work.
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Saturday 12 August 2023
Wednesday 8 February 2023
To access an NR network, a UE needs to carry out initial access functionality which includes cell search and random access. To enable the UE to acquire DL time and frequency synchronization, an SS consisting of the primary SS (PSS) and the secondary SS (SSS) is periodically transmitted in the DL of each cell. After synchronization, the UE can decode the physical broadcast channel (PBCH) which carries the master information block (MIB) that the UE needs to decode in order to receive the remaining system information broadcast by the network. In NR, the PSS, SSS, and PBCH are jointly referred to as SS block (SSB) which occupies 20 resource blocks (RBs). After decoding the PBCH, the UE can move forward to decode the system information block type 1 (SIB1) which contains the system information that the UE needs to know before accessing the network. For example, SIB1 contains information about random access configuration that the UE needs in order to carry out random access procedure. Since the SSB has an associated SIB1 transmission, it is referred to as cell-defining SSB (CD-SSB).
Wednesday 25 January 2023
Today Verizon Business announced its new private 5G network offering, On Site 5G, which is being marketed to large enterprises and public sector customers. When combined with related technologies like the internet of things, mobile edge computing, and machine learning/artificial intelligence, private 5G networks are being billed as part and parcel of powering broad enterprise digital transformation and enabling the Industry 4.0 era.
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Fundarc Communication (xgnlab)
SME-WG EU 5GPPP NetWorld2020
Thursday 22 December 2022
Channel-State Information -Reference Signal channel state information, is very important for improving the overall performance of the wireless system. After obtaining the CSI information, the base station can schedule MCS according to the channel quality, RB resource allocation, beam assignment to improve the rate, multi-user multiplexing MU MIMO, etc.
Nice Article Here
Wednesday 21 December 2022
Due to the high propagation loss of the millimeter wavelengths (mmWaves) employed in 5G new radio (5G NR) systems, plus the high bandwidth demands of users, beamforming techniques and massive are critical for increasing spectral efficiencies and providing cost-effective, reliable coverage.
Read in Fullhttps://www.metaswitch.com/knowledge-center/reference/what-is-beamforming-beam-steering-and-beam-switching-with-massive-mimo
Saturday 27 June 2020
Tuesday 12 March 2019
Monday 11 March 2019
Akraino Edge Stack, a Linux Foundation project initiated by AT&T and Intel, intends to develop a fully integrated edge infrastructure solution, and the project is completely focused towards Edge Computing. This open source software stack provides critical infrastructure to enable high performance, reduce latency, improve availability, lower operational overhead, provide scalability, address security needs, and improve fault management. The Akraino community will address multiple edge use cases and industry, not just Telco Industry. Akraino community intends to develop solution and support of carrier, provider, and the IoT networks.
AT&T's seed code will enable carrier-scale edge computing applications to run in virtual machines and containers. AT&T’s contributions, which will include support for 5G, IoT, and other networking edge services will enhance reliability and enable high performance.
Intel upstreamed Wind River Titanium Cloud portfolio of technologies to open source in support of additional blueprints in Akraino.
The Akraino Edge Stack Community, while embracing several existing open source projects, will continue the focus on the following Community Goal:
▪ Faster Edge Innovation - Focused group facilitating faster innovation, incorporating hardware acceleration, software-defined networking, and other emerging capabilities into a modern Edge stack.
▪ End-to-End Ecosystem - Definition and certification of H/W stacks, configurations, and Edge VNFs.
▪ User Experience - Address both operational and user use cases.
▪ Seamless Edge Cloud Interoperability- Standard to interoperate across multiple Edge Clouds.
▪ Provide End to End Stack- End to end integrated solution with demonstrable use cases.
▪ Use and Improve Existing Open Source - Maximize the use of existing industry investments while developing and up-streaming enhancements, avoiding further fragmentation of the ecosystem.
▪ Support Production-Ready Code - Security established by design and supports full life-cycle.
Akraino is a complementary opensource project, and interfaces with the existing projects namely Acumos AI, Airship, Ceph, DANOS, EdgeX Foundry, Kubernetes, LF Networking, ONAP, OpenStack, and StarlingX.
As highlighted in the Introduction section, there are several emerging technologies such as, (Refer to the picture below)
- Telco NFV Edge Infrastructure - Running cloud infrastructure at the network edge allows for the virtualization of applications key to running 5G mobility networks at a larger scale, density and lower cost using commodity hardware. In addition this infrastructure can also enable the virtualization of wireline services, Enterprise IP services and even supports the virtualization of client premises equipment. This reduces the time to provision new services for customers and even, in some cases, allows those customers to self-provision their service changes.
- Autonomous devices - Drones, Autonomous Vehicles, Industry Robots and such customer devices require a lot of compute processing power in order to support video processing, analytics and etc., Edge computing enables above-said devices to offload the computing processing to the Edge within the needed latency limit.
- Immersive Experiences - Devices like Virtual Reality (VR) headsets and Augmented Reality applications on user’s mobile devices also require extremely low levels of latency to prevent lag that would degrade their user experience. To ensure this experience is optimal, placing computing resources close to the end user to ensure the lowest latencies to and from their devices is critical.
- IoT & Analytics - Emerging technologies in the Internet of Things (IoT) demands lower latencies and accelerated processing at the edge.
To ensure timely information arrives for data-driven decisions for manufacturing and shipping businesses, edge computing is also beneficial. Receiving and processing this data at the edge allows more timely decision making leading to better business outcomes.
Network Edge - Optimal Zone for Edge Placement
The processing power demands of customer devices, namely AR/VR, Drones, and Autonomous Vehicles are ever increasing and require very low latency, typically measured in milliseconds. The place where processing takes place plays a major role with respect to quality of user experience and cost of ownership. Centralized cloud decreases the TCO, but fails to address the low latency requirement. Placement at customer premises is nearly impossible with respect to cost and infrastructure. Considering the cost, low latency, and high processing power requirements, the best available option is to utilize the existing infrastructure like Telco’s tower, central offices, and other Telco real estates. These will be the optimal zones for the edge placement.
Akraino Edge Stack
The Akraino Edge Stack is a collection of multiple blueprints. Blueprints are the declarative configuration of entire stack i.e., Cloud platform, API, and Applications. Intend of Akraino Edge Stack is to support VM, container and bare metal workloads. Akraino is a complimentary OpenSource project and it is intended to use upstream community work in addition to the software development within the Akraino community.
A typical service provider will have thousands of Edge sites. These Edge sites could be deployed at Cell tower, Central offices, and other service providers real estate such as wire centers. End-to-End Edge automation and Zero-Touch provisioning are required to minimize OPEX and meet the requirements for provisioning agility.
The Akraino Edge Stack is intended to support any type of access methodologies such as Wireless (4G/LTE, 5G), Wireline, Wi-Fi, etc.,
In order to be resilient, Akraino Edge Stack deployment intent to follow the hierarchy of deployments such as collection of central sites that deploy a collection of regional sites. The regional sites that facilitate the deployment of Edge Sites. For example, the figure below shows the central site C1 and C2 allows the management of regional sites R1, R2, R3, and R4. And regional sites allows the management of Edge Sites which are remote and closer to the users.
Regional sites serve as the controller for Edge sites in their corresponding "Edge Flock".
To promote the high availability of Edge Cloud services, Akraino regional sites are set up redundantly to overcome site failures.
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