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Sunday 29 July 2018

"A tryst with Industry 4.0" - Telefonica UK calls on FTSE bosses to participate in O2 5G Testbed trials.

Telefónica UK Limited ("O2") today has written to every Chief Executive of companies in the FTSE 100 Index to invite them to participate in O2's 5G Testbed trials, ahead of the UK's expected 5G launch from 2020. 

The call for applications was today made by Mark Evans, O2's CEO. We "Fundarc-comm (xgnlab) termed this initiative "A tryst with Industry 4.0". Very intelligent and prudential move from telefonica, setting the larger perspective and truly in interest of 5G.

Under the ground-breaking 5G commitment, O2 aims to work with a number of FTSE 100 businesses to understand the processes and use cases that would benefit from 5G. 

Apart from benefiting 5G development, this would range from improving efficiencies in supply chains and production processes to unlocking new 5G enabled revenue streams and enhancing customer experience.

The commitment comes as O2 states its belief in 5G 'to transform every corner of life and society' whilst making it accessible for businesses and consumers alike.

Derek McManus, who has overseen the introduction of both 3G and 4G throughout his career as O2's Chief Operations Officer, said: "5G is a brilliant way for the UK to turn promise into
progress. This nation will thrive on the potential power of 5G."

O2, is the UK's principle campaigner for Mobile Britain. Speaking of the 5G opportunity, Mark Evans said: "Mobile, and specifically 5G, is one of the UK's most powerful opportunities to strengthen our economy, enrich our society and outperform on the global stage. Our national Testbed commitment is testament to this belief and we are excited by the value it could create for UK Plc."

The FTSE 100 businesses will need to express their interest by September 2018 and meet certain qualifying criteria to be considered for the opportunity.

Saurabh Verma
Chief Tech Consultant & Founder
Fundarc Communication (xgnlab)
Noida, India - 201301

Tuesday 10 July 2018

From MEC to MAEC a forsighted ETSI vision or rethinking?

MEC, known as Mobile Edge Computing has come up in mainstream, when ETSI started working on it with an ISG (Industry Standard Group) formation. The whole concept has started with the incorporation of cloud computing in 3GPP network architecture, with some of architecture network function being transferred to cloud computing environment and there were conspicuous impact of transportation delays among network functions. ETSI got a foresighted vision of putting some of cloud computing functionality near the system, much in the propensity of edge of the network to provide delay sensitive or first respondent kind of functionality in close proximity. This whole thinking brought up edge computing ushering in the whole network end to end architecture in 3GPP network, specifically focused to LTE adv or LTE adv pro, in recent time.
In early stages of technology adaptation the major impact on 3GPP networks came on radio access networks and concept of C-RAN has been the prominent outcome in industry, where most or much affable RAN functionality was put over edge computing and radio front end is kept as bare metal as possible. This also brought up front haul in consideration while defining and deploying such architectures.

In 2016 ETSI re-evaluated the importance of MEC and asked its ISG to extend it work for two more years to assess the Edge computing, in its applicability not only to 3GPP but also to other access technologies, not limited to wireless but in area of wireline too. This also forced ETSI to redefine and re-name it as "Multi Access Edge Computing" or MAEC, which going to cater multi access technologies and their functionalities on edge. Also in line of having MAEC role in End-to-End architecture, even the core network functionalities are also being thought of, to bring and coordinate within the edge.

Industry has widely accepted the MAEC, and with the most buzzing 5G now days, it is being taken as a prominent player in defining and deploying next gen mobile network architecture.

Will come with our white paper on it soon…with notion "MAEC impact"……….just wait.

Mobile Edge Computing - what it is?


  1. ETSI MEC ISG, "Mobile Edge Computing (MEC); Framework and reference architecture," ETSI, DGS MEC 003, April 2016. [Online]. Available:
  2. ETSI NFV ISG, "Network Functions Virtualisation (NFV); Architectural Framework," ETSI, DGS NFV 002, December 2014.
  3. ETSI MEC ISG, "Mobile Edge Computing (MEC); General principles for Mobile Edge Service APIs," ETSI, DGS MEC 009, July 2017. [Online]. Available:
  4. ——, "Mobile Edge Computing (MEC); Radio Network Information API," ETSI, DGS MEC 012, July 2017. [Online]. Available:
  5. ——, "Mobile Edge Computing (MEC); Location API," ETSI, DGS MEC 013, July 2017. [Online]. Available:
  6. ——, "Mobile Edge Computing (MEC); Bandwidth Management API," ETSI, DGS MEC 015, October 2017. [Online]. Available:
  7. ——, "Mobile Edge Computing (MEC); Mobile Edge Platform Application Enablement," ETSI, DGS MEC 011, July 2017. [Online]. Available:
  8. ——, "Mobile Edge Computing (MEC); Mobile Edge Management; Part 1: System, host and platform management," ETSI, DGS MEC 010-1, October 2017. [Online]. Available:
  9. ——, "Mobile Edge Computing (MEC); Mobile Edge Management; Part 2: Application lifecycle, rules and requirements management," ETSI, DGS MEC 010-2, July 2017. [Online]. Available:
  10. ——, "Mobile Edge Computing (MEC); UE application interface," ETSI, DGS MEC 016, September 2017. [Online]. Available:

Monday 9 July 2018

What's about Blockchain? An Introductory feat.

From Techopedia - An Introduction to Blockchain.

What is Blockchain.

Blockchain is a distributed digital ledger. It is an official record-keeper that can be used to verify data transactions over time in a way that is both open and virtually unbreakable. It works by recording transactions (blocks) on multiple specialized servers around the world, creating a distributed record of transactions (the chain) that can be verified against one another to determine authenticity. The only way to tamper with a blockchain is to break into every server containing a copy of the chain at once – not an impossible feat, but extraordinarily difficult for even the most sophisticated hacker.

One for All

Blockchain’s potential for electronic commerce is profound, says Computerworld’s Lucas Meerian, and not just for digital currencies like bitcoin, which were the first to make use of it. Currently, most records, financial or otherwise, are kept on privately-owned databases, and outsiders looking to update them, such as a retailer, must pay for access. Blockchain is a peer-to-peer network that is owned by no one and is accessible by all, so right off the bat it has the potential to dramatically lower the cost of doing business. It is also self-regulating and self-managing, essentially giving users the ability to manage their own digital records, not the banks, credit card companies or the government. (To learn more about blockchain's use in bitcoin, see How the Bitcoin Protocol Actually Works.)
But blockchain can be applied to far more than just financial transactions. Any digital exchange that requires a trusted version of past exchanges can benefit, including medical records, inventory management, real estate filings and legal documentation. Virtually any industry can leverage blockchain in a wide variety of ways, eliminating paperwork, lessening their management overhead and, according to Accenture, reduce data infrastructure by 30 percent, representing billions of dollars in annual cost savings.

Companies like Earnst & Young are at the forefront of integrating blockchain into mainstream enterprise applications, says Bitcoin Magazine’s Michael Scott. The firm’s EY Ops program is working with collaborators to insert the technology into supply chain management, billing and payments, and a range of other functions where broad visibility into complex relationships is crucial. The company recently opened a Blockchain Lab in New York, where it is developing cryptography, physics and other solutions in conjunction with existing centers in London and Trivandrum, India.

Causes for Concern

Still, if blockchain is this good, why hasn’t it taken the world by storm? What’s the downside?
Alex Jablokow, of software development firm PTC, says one of the more significant challenges facing blockchain is scale. Even though its use is already widespread, it still accounts for only a tiny fraction of the worldwide data load, which itself is about to explode due to big data and the internet of things (IoT). The more blockchain scales, the more resources it will require for encryption, storage and other functions. Already, an average bitcoin blockchain is around 100 GB, and given the right conditions, computational requirements for activities like bitcoin mining can impose significant burdens on local infrastructure.
As well, blockchain utilizes a timed refresh cycle that helps to ensure there are no variants in the system. For bitcoin, this is set at 10 minutes, but the cycle will have to become much shorter as the internet of things ramps up, perhaps down to the sub-millisecond level, which will fuel significantly greater resource consumption.
But how, exactly, should the enterprise implement blockchain? As an open-sourcesolution, it is available in a variety of community-based and industry solutions, each of which targets a specific set of use cases or capabilities, says Enterprise Times’ Charles Brett.
The Linux Foundation hosts and initiative called Hyperledger that provides an enterprise-grade framework and code base. IBM is currently building its blockchain portfolio, dubbed IBM Blockchain, around Hyperledger, most recently releasing a blockchain as a service (BCaaS) offering using the Hyperledger Fabric project designed for deployment on modular architectures.
Another option is called Quorum, devised by J.P. Morgan and Eurotech to leverage a version of blockchain called Ethereum to target high-speed transactions. The system is geared toward private networks with known, permissioned participants, most likely involving complex settlement processes like lines of credit. (For more on blockchain, see How Blockchain Can Impact Digital Business.)

Editable Blockchain?

Meanwhile, Accenture is working on an editable version of blockchain that would allow a central administrator to make changes to existing chains, provided a series of preconditions are met. This naturally raises some eyebrows given that a built-in ability to alter past records broadens the potential for fraud and abuse.
And Microsoft is currently working on Project Bletchley, an Ethereum-based BCaaS solution for the Azure cloud. The aim is to provide a common middleware between disparate sources that provide an added level of trust during the transaction process.
Blockchain’s raison d’etre is to provide a high degree of trust in complex data environments. But as a new technology, it has yet to earn that trust. The IT industry has a long history of becoming intrigued by tools and technology that purport to be dramatically better than the status quo, while at the same time remaining highly suspicious of anything new.
Blockchain is currently on the radar at most enterprises, but it will take some time, and a rock-solid performance record, for it to make a meaningful contribution to enterprise data operations.

Friday 6 July 2018

3 points strategy for operators to move for 5G.

  1. Ø Gigabit LTE and WiFi 802.11 ax can do much better, specifically for Asian market, rather having immediate focus on #5G.
  2. Ø Before jumping to #5G, focus on core, slicing, operation & management and orchestration capabilities.
  3. Ø NSA mode is for good beginning to incorporate #5G, A large scale convergence will be there...that's means multiple technology at access and unified core. time

SA mode emerge to change the paradigm of cellular completely.... note it. its gonna take long time for cellular services but may come for FWA cases in recent time.


3GPP- 5G network slicing requirements.

5G networks and network slicing

Management and orchestration of 5G networks and network slicing is a feature that includes the following work items: management concept and architecture, provisioning, network resource model, fault supervision, assurance and performance management, trace management and virtualization management aspects. With the output of these work items, SA5 provides specified management interfaces in support of 5G networks and network slicing. An operator can configure and manage the mobile network to support various types of services enabled by 5G, for example eMBB (enhanced Mobile Broadband) and URLLC (Ultra-Reliable and Low Latency Communications), depending on the different customers’ needs. The management concept, architecture and provisioning are being defined in TS 28.53028.53128.532 and 28.533
Network slicing is seen as one of the key features for 5G, allowing vertical industries to take advantage of 5G networks and services. 3GPP SA5 adopts the network slice concept as defined in SA2 and addresses the management aspects. Network slicing is about transforming a PLMN from a single network to a network where logical partitions are created, with appropriate network isolation, resources, optimized topology and specific configuration to serve various service requirements.
As an example, a variety of communication service instances provided by multiple Network Slice Instances (NSIs) are illustrated in the figure below. The different parts of an NSI are grouped as Network Slice Subnets (e.g. RAN, 5GC and Transport) allowing the lifecycle of a Network Slice Subnet Instance (NSSI) to be managed independently from the lifecycle of an NSI.
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Provisioning of network slice instances

The management aspects of a network slice instance can be described by the four phases:
1) Preparation: in the preparation phase the network slice instance does not exist. The preparation phase includes network slice template design, network slice capacity planning, on-boarding and evaluation of the network slice requirements, preparing the network environment and other necessary preparations required to be done before the creation of a network slice instance.
2) Commissioning: provisioning in the commissioning phase includes creation of the network slice instance. During network slice instance creation all needed resources are allocated and configured to satisfy the network slice requirements. The creation of a network slice instance can include creation and/or modification of the network slice instance constituents.
3) Operation: includes the activation, supervision, performance reporting (e.g. for KPI monitoring), resource capacity planning, modification, and de-activation of a network slice instance. Provisioning in the operation phase involves activation, modification and de-activation of a network slice instance.
4) Decommissioning: network slice instance provisioning in the decommissioning phase includes decommissioning of non-shared constituents if required and removing the network slice instance specific configuration from the shared constituents. After the decommissioning phase, the network slice instance is terminated and does not exist anymore.
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Similarly, provisioning for a network slice subnet instance (NSSI) includes the following operations:
  • Create an NSSI;
  • Activate an NSSI;
  • De-active an NSSI;
  • Modify an NSSI;
  • Terminate an NSSI.

Roles related to 5G networks and network slicing

The roles related to 5G networks and network slicing management include: Communication Service Customer, Communication Service Provider (CSP), Network Operator (NOP), Network Equipment Provider (NEP), Virtualization Infrastructure Service Provider (VISP), Data Centre Service Provider (DCSP), NFVI (Network Functions Virtualization Infrastructure) Supplier and Hardware Supplier.
Depending on actual scenarios:
  • Each role can be played by one or more organizations simultaneously;
  • An organization can play one or several roles simultaneously (for example, a company can play CSP and NOP roles simultaneously).
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Management models for network slicing

Different management models can be used in the context of network slicing.
1) Network Slice as a Service (NSaaS): NSaaS can be offered by a CSP to its CSC in the form of a communication service. This service allows CSC to use and optionally manage the network slice instance. In turn, this CSC can play the role of CSP and offer their own services (e.g. communication services) on top of the network slice instance. The MNSI (Managed Network Slice Instance) in the figure represents a network slice instance and CS represents a communication service.
2) Network Slices as NOP internals: network slices are not part of the CSP service offering and hence are not visible to CSCs. However, the NOP, to provide support to communication services, may decide to deploy network slices, e.g. for internal network optimization purposes.
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Management architecture

SA5 recognizes the need for automation of management by introducing new management functions such as a communication service management function (CSMF), network slice management function (NSMF) and a network slice subnet management function (NSSMF) to provide an appropriate abstraction level for automation.
The 3GPP SA5 management architecture will adopt a service-oriented management architecture which is described as interaction between management service consumer and management service provider. For example, a management service consumer can request operations from management service providers on fault supervision service, performance management service, provisioning service and notification service, etc.

Network Resource Model (NRM) for 5G networks and network slicing

To support management and orchestration of 5G networks, the Network Resource Model (NRM) representing the manageable aspects of 5G networks needs to be defined, according to 5G network specifications from other 3GPP working groups as well as considering requirements from 5G management architecture and operations.
The 5G NRM specifications family includes 4 specifications: TS 28.540 and TS 28.541 for NRM of NR and NG-RAN, TS 28.542and TS 28.543 for NRM of 5G core network.

According to content categorization, 5G NRM specifications can be divided into 3 parts:
  • Requirements, also known as stage 1,
  • Information Model definitions also known as stage 2, and
  • Solution Set definitions also known as stage 3.
Identified in the specifications of 5G NRM requirements (TS 28.540 and TS 28.542), the NRM of 5G network comprises NRM for the 5G core network (5GC) and NRM for 5G radio access network (i.e. NR and NG-RAN). The 5GC NRM definitions support management of 5GC Network Functions, respective interfaces as well as AMF Set and AMF Region. The NR and NG-RAN NRM definitions cover various 5G radio networks connectivity options (standalone and non-standalone radio node deployment options) and architectural options (NR nodes with or without functional split).
The 5G Information Model definitions specify the semantics and behavior of information object class attributes and relations visible on the 5G management interfaces, in a protocol and technology neutral way (UML as protocol-neutral language is used). The 5G Information Model is defined according to 5GC, NR and NG-RAN specifications. For example, in 3GPP TS 38.401, the NR node (gNB) is defined to support three functional split options (i.e. non-split option, two split option with CU and DU, three split option with CU-CP, CU-UP and DU), so in the NR NRM Information Model, corresponding Information Object Class (IOC) is defined for each network function of gNB specified, and different UML diagrams show the relationship of each gNB split option respectively. Further, in the 5G Information Model definitions, the existing Generic NRM Information Service specification (TS 28.622) is referenced to inherit the attributes of generic information object classes, and the existing EPC NRM Information Service specification (TS 28.708) is referenced for 5GS / EPS interworking relationships description.

Finally, NRM Solution Set definitions map the Information Model definitions to a specific protocol definition used for implementations. According to recommendation from TR 32.866 (Study on RESTful based Solution Set), JSON is expected to be chosen as data modelling language to describe one 5G NRM Solution Set.

Fault Supervision of 5G networks and network slicing

Fault Supervision is one of the fundamental functions for the management of a 5G network and its communication services. For the fault supervision of 5G networks and network slicing, the following 3GPP TSs are being specified:
1) TS 28.545 “Management and orchestration of networks and network slicing; Fault Supervision (FS); Stage 1”, which includes:
  • The use cases and requirements for fault supervision of 5G networks and network slicing.
  • The definitions of fault supervision related management services (e.g. NetworkSliceAlarmAcknowledgement, NetworkSliceAlarmListReading, NetworkSliceAlarmClearance, NetworkSliceAlarmNotification, NetworkSliceAlarmSubscription, etc.)
2) TS 28.546 “Management and orchestration of networks and network slicing; Fault Supervision (FS); Stage 2 and stage 3”, which includes the definition of:
  • Interfaces of the fault supervision related management services; (Stage 2)
  • Notifications; (Stage 2)
  • Alarm related information models (e.g. alarmInformation, alarmList, etc.); (Stage 2)
  • Solution set(s) (e.g. RESTful HTTP-based solution set for Fault Supervison); (Stage 3)
  • New event types and probable causes if necessary. 

Assurance data and Performance Management for 5G networks and network slicing

The 5G network is designed to accommodate continuously fast increasing data traffic demand, and in addition, to support new services such as IoT, cloud-based services, industrial control, autonomous driving, mission critical communications, etc. Such services may have their own performance criteria, such as massive connectivity, extreme broadband, ultra-low latency and ultra-high reliability.
The performance data of the 5G networks and NFs (Network Functions) are fundamental for network monitoring, assessment, analysis, optimization and assurance. For the services with ultra-low latency and ultra-high reliability requirements, any faults or performance issues in the networks can cause service failure which may result in serious personal and property losses. Therefore, it is necessary to be able to collect the performance data in real-time (e.g., by performance data streaming), so that the analytic applications (e.g., network optimization, SON, etc.) could use the performance data to detect any network performance problems, predict the potential issues and take appropriate actions quickly or even in advance.
For network slicing, the communication services are provided on top of the end-to-end network slice instances, so the performance needs to be monitored from end-to-end point of view.
The end to end performance data of 5G networks (including sub-networks), NSIs (Network Slice Instances) and NSSIs (Network Slice Subnet Instances) are vital for operators to know whether they can meet the communication service requirement.
The performance data may be used by various kinds of consumers, such as network operator, SON applications, network optimization applications, network analytics applications, performance assurance applications, etc. To facilitate various consumers to get their required performance data, the following items are being pursued by this WI:
  • A service based PM framework and a list of PM services as described in the table below:  

Management service name

Management service description

NF measurement job control service
The management service for creating and terminating the measurement job(s) for the NF(s).
NF measurement job information service
The management service for querying the information of the measurement job(s) for the NF(s).
NF performance data file reporting Service
The management service for reporting the NF performance data file.
NF performance data streaming service
The management service for providing streaming of NF performance data.
NSSI measurement job control service
The management service for creating and terminating the measurement job(s) for the NSSI(s).
NSSI measurement job information service
The management service for querying the information of the measurement job(s) for the NSSI(s).
NSSI performance data file reporting Service
The management service for reporting the NSSI performance data file.
NSSI performance data streaming service
The management service for providing streaming of NSSI performance data.
NSI measurement job control service
The management service for creating and terminating the measurement job(s) for the NSI(s).
NSI measurement job information service
The management service for querying the information of the measurement job(s) for the NSI(s).
NSI performance data file reporting Service
The management service for reporting the NSI performance data file.
NSI performance data streaming service
The management service for providing streaming of NSI performance data.
Network measurement job control service
The management service for creating and terminating the measurement job(s) to collect the network performance data that is not specific to network slicing.
Network measurement job information service
The management service for querying the information of the measurement job(s) to collect the network performance data that is not specific to network slicing.
Network performance data file reporting service
The management service for reporting the network performance data file that is not specific to network slicing.
Network performance data streaming service
The management service for providing network performance data streaming that is not specific to network slicing.
  • Performance measurements (including the data that can be used for performance assurance) for 3GPP NFs;
  • End to end KPIs, performance measurements (including the data that can be used for performance assurance) for NSIs, NSSIs and networks (where the performance data is not specific to network slicing).

5G FWA smart city trial - A demonstration of capacity gain and peak data rate of 1 Gbps per subs.

Cisco and Samsung have completed the first successful 5G fixed-wireless tests on Orange's live network in Romania. The fixed-wireless access (FWA) tests, in the 26 GHz band, have verified a number of smart city use cases,

The 5G FWA set-up in Romania has made use of Samsung's virtualised 5G radio access network, comprising a diminutive 5G access unit and multiple indoor and outdoor 5G routers. It has also used Cisco's Meraki Z3 Wi-Fi router and 'ultra gateway platform'.
By leveraging the wide bandwidth available at 26 GHz and antenna technologies like massive MIMO and beamforming, the companies were able to achieve speeds of 1Gbps in live conditions at distances of more than one kilometre from the base station, and aggregated cell downlink throughputs of 3Gbps with few users.
Samsung nodes have been installed on a streetlamp to provide wireless connectivity for temperature and humidity sensors and security cameras; sensors and cameras are connected wirelessly to the node, which is then connected to the core network via 5G. The nodes are described as "compact, high-capacity, easy-to-install and economical alternatives for places where wireline deployment is unfeasible or costly."
In another set-up, Cisco cameras have been deployed to provide video coverage and video-based analytics for various smart-city and retail scenarios, including for counting people in the camera field. Samsung said the arrangement delivered "precious information to improve disposal of products in retail environment", and to better organise spaces.
The 5G FWA trials have also demonstrated capacity to stream several ultra high-definition (UHD) videos and virtual reality (VR) sessions in parallel over the same 5G connection. All of the content is transmitted via the 5G core and 5G radio link.

Get more detailed news and insight from HERE

5G Development with MATLAB